Última atualização: Fevereiro de 2011
Professor Adjunto IV
Bolsista de Produtividade em Pesquisa do CNPq - Nível 2
Departamento de Ecologia, ICB, Universidade Federal de Goiás
Caixa Postal 131, Goiânia, GO, 74001-970, Brasil.
asm.adrimelo no gmail.com
Professor no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Evolução - UFG
Professor no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia - UFRGS
1992-1995: Graduação: Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas
Universidade Estadual de Campinas
Título: "Macroinvertebrados associados a pedras em riachos: padrões de diversidade ao longo de uma bacia hidrográfica"
Orientador:Prof. Dr. Claudio G. Froehlich
Universidade Estadual de Campinas, concluída em setembro de 2002
Título: "Estudos sobre estimadores de riqueza de espécies, perturbações experimentais e persistência ao longo de cinco anos em comunidades de macroinvertebrados bentônicos em riachos"
Orientador:Prof. Dr. Claudio G. Froehlich
2003: Bolsista DCR-CNPq (pos-doc): Dep. Biologia Geral, ICB, Universidade Federal de Goiás
2004: Bolsista Jovem Pesquisador (Biota-Fapesp) (pos-doc): Dep. Biologia, FFCLRP, Universidade de São Paulo (Ribeirão Preto)
2004-2009: Professor Adjunto (I, II e III): Dep. Ecologia, IB, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
2009-presente: Professor Adjunto III: Dep. Ecologia, ICB, Universidade Federal de Goiás
Graduação (UFRGS: 2004-2008; UFG 2010-2. Próxima: UFG 2011-1): Ecologia de Ecossistemas
Graduação (UFRGS: 2004 (com V.Pillar), 2006): Métodos Quantitativos Aplicados à Ecologia
Graduação (UFG: 2009-2010): Bioestatística
Graduação (UFG: 2010. Próxima: UFG 2011-1): Filosofia e Epistemologia da Ciência
(UFG: 2003-04, 2006-10; INPA: 2005; UEM: 2010. Próximas: UFG 2011-2, UEM 2012-2): Métodos
para Quantificar a Diversidade Biológica
Pós-Graduação (UFRGS:desde 2005; UFMG: 2009; UFRN: 2010. Próxima: UFRGS 2011-1): Introdução aos Modelos Lineares em Ecologia
Pós-Graduação (UFRGS: 2005): Redação de Artigos Científicos
Pós-Graduação (UFRGS: 2007-2009): Ecologia de Campo: Floresta de Araucária (em parceria com Unisinos)
Pós-Graduação (UFRGS: 2008; UFG: 2009-2010, Próximas: UFU 2011-2, UFG 2011-2): Introdução à programação no R com aplicações na Ecologia
Pós-Graduação (UNISINOS 2008): Introdução ao uso do ambiente R em análise de dados em Ecologia
Pós-Graduação (UFG: 2009-2010. Próxima 2011-1): Elaboração e Delineamento de Projetos
Pós-Graduação (UNICAMP: 2002; UNISINOS 2005; PDBFF-INPA: 2005-08, 2010; USP: 2009): Colaborador em Curso de Campo
Atividades administrativas e acadêmicas:
2010-12: Coordenador de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Evolução - UFG
2009-2012: Coordenador PELD sítio 13 - Parque Nacional das Emas
2009: Presidente da Comissão Organizadora do XII Congresso Brasileiro de Limnologia (23-27 agosto 2009, Gramado-RS)
2007-08: Coordenador do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia - UFRGS
2006-presente: Editor Associado Neotropical Biology and Conservation
2010-presente: Editor Associado Zoologia
2010-presente: Editor Associado Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia
2007-10: Editor Associado Biota Neotropica
2006-07: Editor Associado Check List
de interesse em pesquisa:
1-) Ecologia de Comunidades
2-) Diversidade de macroinvertebrados em riachos
3-) Biologia de insetos aquáticos
4-) Métodos de análise de dados em diversidade
5-) História Natural de Trichoptera e Megaloptera (Insecta)
1-) 2010-2012: Fatores determinantes da diversidade, concordância e persistência interanual de comunidades animais e vegetais no Cerrado (CNPq: Programa de Pesquisas Ecológicas de Longa Duração)
2-) 2010-2011: Efeitos do pastejo, heterogeneidade do substrato e distúrbios físicos na estruturação de comunidades perifíticas em riachos: uma abordagem experimental (CNPq: Edital Universal)
Carolina Ramos Caiado Gomes
Iniciação Científica (PIBIC-CNPq) , Universidade Federal de Goiás
Início: Agosto de 2010. Término: em andamento
Assunto: Agregação de insetos em corredeiras de riachos: efeito da posição espacial sobre a riqueza de espécies e o aninhamento de comunidades
Mestranda em Ecologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul.
Início: Março de 2010
Assunto: Influência da posição espacial de pequenos tributários dentro da bacia hidrográfica sobre a estrutura da comunidade de insetos aquáticos
(co-orientação de Albano Schwarzbold)
Doutoranda em Ecologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul.
Início: Março de 2008
Assunto: Efeitos do pastejo, velocidade, sedimentos finos e heterogeneidade do substrato na estruturação de comunidades perifiticas em riachos: uma abordagem experimental
Doutorando em Ecologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul.
Início: Março de 2007
Assunto: Componentes espaciais da diversidade de insetos aquáticos em riachos
Doutoranda em Ecologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul.
Início: Março de 2007
Assunto: Modelagem preditiva de espécies invasoras.
Raphael Ligeiro Barroso Santo (Orientador: Marcos Callisto)
Doutorando, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (PPG Ecologia, Conservação e manejo da Vida Silvestre)
Início: Março de 2009. Término: em andamento
Assunto: Relações espaciais de aninhamento, partição da diversidade e similaridade das comunidades de macroinvertebrados bentônicos em ecossistemas preservados e impactados
Tavares Martins (Orientador:
Doutorando, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (PPG Entomologia)
Início: Março de 2009. Término: em andamento
Assunto: Avaliação ambiental de igarapés do município de Manaus (Amazonas, Brasil) através da comunidade de macroinvertebrados e da decomposição foliar
de Castro Vasconcelos (Orientador:
Doutorando, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PPG Ecologia)
Início: Março de 2008. Término: em andamento
Assunto: Estrutura da comunidade de macroinvertebrados netônicos como base para tipologia de rios
Fernanda da Silva Moreira
Iniciação Científica (PIBIC-CNPq), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Início: Agosto de 2009. Término: Julho de 2009
Assunto: Autocorrelação espacial de ácaros em lagoas costeiras do Rio Grande do Sul
(Com auxílio da Dra Georgina Bond-Buckup)
Iniciação Científica (PROBIC UFRGS/FAPERGS), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Início: Março 2005. Término: Junho 2006
Assunto: Microdistribuição de duas espécies de Aegla num riacho de Igrejinha, RS
Pamela Flach (co-orientação de Carla P. Ozorio)
Mestre em Ecologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul.
Início: Março de 2007. Término: Abril de 2009.
Título: Partição aditiva de diversidade de Nematoda em lagoas costeiras: componentes espaciais e ambientais.
Mestre em Ecologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Início: Março de 2005. Término: Abril de 2007
Título: Efeito do sedimento fino de origem terrestre sobre a fauna de macroinvertebrados bentônicos em riachos.
Lemes Landeiro (Coorientação. Orientador: Dra. Neusa
Mestre em Entomologia, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia
Início: Março de 2004. Término: Fevereiro de 2006
Título: Efeitos dos macroconsumidores (peixes e camarões) sobre a assembléia de insetos aquáticos e na taxa de degradação de folhas em riachos de floresta de terra firme, Amazônia central
Mestre em Ecologia e Evolução, Universidade Federal de Goiás
Início: Março de 2004. Término: Abril 2006
Título: Análise comparativa da comunidade de macroinvertebrados aquáticos em diferentes micro-habitats e estudo da riqueza e raridade de espécies
de Análises em Ecologia no Programa
Em torno de 2001 iniciei um trabalho em colaboração com vários colegas (Melo et al. 2003) em que usamos funções escritas´no S-Plus pelo meu grande amigo Rodrigo Santinelo Pereira (USP-RP). Nos anos seguintes aprendi rudimentos básicos da linguagem S, mas de forma fragmentada. Uso independente era uma complicação só! Em 2004 iniciei trabalhos com R. As coisas ficaram muito mais fáceis e agradáveis depois de estudar o manual introdutório de 100 páginas disponível no meu de ajuda do programa. Desde então tenho trabalhado com R rotineiramente em aulas e trabalhos de pesquisa.
O programa de uso livre R é constituído por centenas de pacotes estatísticos. Cada pacote possui diversas funções para análises específicas. Uma função é um conjunto de comandos sequenciais, que usando as informações supridas pelo usuário, retornará um resultado desejado. Por exemplo, o pacote ‘vegan’ contém, entre outras, funções para análises multivariadas (CA, CCA) e diversidade (estimadores de riqueza, índices diversidade). O pacote ‘boot’ contém diversas funções relacionadas a análises de bootstrap. A maior parte do trabalho no R é feita por linhas de comandos. Praticamente não se usa o mouse. Usuários do DOS vão se sentir um pouco familiar. Pode parecer difícil no início, mas depois de conhecer os comandos básicos o trabalho fica muito prático. Tenho sempre que possível oferecido cursos (ver acima) usando o R e estimulado meus orientandos a usarem. Visite a página do R: www.r-project.org.
40-) Landeiro, V. L., W. E. Magnusson, A. S. Melo,
H. M. V. Espírito-Santo e L. M. Bini. submetido. Spatial eigenfunction
analysis in stream networks: do watercourse and overland distances
produce different results?
39-) Dobrovolski, R., A. S. Melo,
F. A. S. Cassemiro e J. A. F. Diniz-Filho. submetido. Climatic history
and dispersal ability explain beta diversity partition into turnover
and nestedness components.
38-) Barbosa, F. G., F. Schneck e A. S. Melo. submetido. Predicting biological invasions using species distribution models: a scientometric analysis.
37-) Barbosa, F. G., V. D. Pillar, A. R. Palmer e A. S. Melo. submetido.
the current distribution and potential spread of the exotic grass
Nees in South America and identifying a bioclimatic niche shift
36-) Both, C., A. S. Melo, S. Z. Cechin e S. M. Hartz. submetido. Tadpole co-occurrence in ponds: when do guilds and time matter?
35-) Schneck, F., A. Schwarzbold, S.C. Rodrigues e A. S. Melo. 2011. Environmetal variability drives phytoplankton assemblage persistence in a subtropical reservoir. Austral Ecology.
C., S. Z. Cechin, A.
S. Melo e e S. M. Hartz. 2011. What controls
tadpole richness and guild composition in ponds in subtropical
grasslands? Austral Ecology
32-) Ferro, V. G., A. S. Melo e I. R. Diniz 2010. Diversity of Arctiidae (Insecta, Lepidoptera) in the Brazilian Cerrado: How much do we know? Zoologia 27: 725-731.
31-) Pizo, M. A. e A. S. Melo. 2010. Attendance and co-occurrence of birds following army antes in the Atlantic Rain Forest. The Condor 112: 571-578.
30-) Schneck, F. e A. S. Melo. 2010. Reliable sample sizes for estimating similarity among macroinvertebrate assemblages in tropical streams. Annales de Limnologie 46: 93:100.
29-) Landeiro, V. L., N. Hamada, B. S. Godoy e A. S. Melo. 2010. Effect of litter patch area on macroinvertebrate community, density of shredders, and leaf breakdown in Central Amazonian streams. Hydrobiologia 649: 355-363.
28-) Ligeiro, R., A. S. Melo e M. Callisto. 2010. Spatial scale and the diversity of macroinvertebrates in a Neotropical catchment. Freshwater Biology 55: 424-435.
2009. Explaining dissimilarities in macroinvertebrate assemblages among
stream sites using environmental variables. Zoologia
26-) Barbosa, F. G. e A. S. Melo. 2009. Modelo preditivo de sobrevivência do mexilhão dourado (Limnoperna fortunei) em relação a variações de salinidade na Laguna dos Patos, RS, Brasil. Biota Neotropica 9: 02809032009.
J. A. F., L. M. Bini, G. Oliveira, B. S. Barreto, M. M. F. P. Silva,
L. C. Terribile, T. F. L. V. B. Rangel, M. P. Pinto, N. P. R. Sousa,
L. C. G. Vieira, A.
P. De Marco Jr., C. M. Vieira, D. Blamires, R. P. Bastos, P.
Carvalho, L. G. Ferreira, M. P. C. Telles, F. M. Rodrigues e T. N.
Soares. 2009. Macroecologia, biogeografia e áreas prioritárias para
conservação no Cerrado. 2009. Oecologia
T.F.L.V.B. Rangel e J.A.F. Diniz-Filho. 2009. Environmental
drivers of beta-diversity patterns in New-World birds and mammals.
e T. A. Wheeler. 2009.
A new species of Pseudogaurax
(Diptera: Chloropidae) reared from dobsonfly egg-masses (Megaloptera:
Corydalidae) in Brazil. Zootaxa
e L. U. Hepp. 2008. Ferramentas
estatísticas para análises de dados provenientes de
que ganhamos ‘confundindo’ riqueza de espécies e equabilidade em
um índice de diversidade? Biota
Vasconcelos, M.C. e A.
experimental test of the effects of inorganic sediment addition on
benthic macroinvertebrates of a subtropical stream. Hydrobiologia
Landeiro, V. L., N. Hamada e A.
of aquatic invertebrate assemblages and leaf breakdown to
macroconsumer exclusion in Amazonian “terra firme” streams.
and Applied Limnology
Bücker, F., R. Gonçalves,
2008. Effect of environmental variables on the distribution of two
freshwater crabs (Anomura: Aeglidae). Journal
of Crustacean Biology
Costa S. S. e A.
2008. Beta diversity in stream macroinvertebrate assemblages:
among-site and among-microhabitat components. Hydrobiologia
G. Bond-Buckup, L. Buckup, D. S. Castiglioni e A. A. P. Bueno. 2008.
Invertebrados Aquáticos. In: G. Bond-Buckup. (Org.). Livro de
Atividades (Biodiversidade dos Campos de Cima da Serra). Porto
(~8 Mb) ou E-Book
G. Bond-Buckup, L. Buckup, D. S. Castiglioni e A. A. P. Bueno. 2008.
Invertebrados Aquáticos. In: G. Bond-Buckup. (Org.). Biodiversidade
dos Campos de Cima da Serra. Porto Alegre: Libreto, p. 58-77.
(~13 Mb) ou E-Book
L. M. Bini
e S. M. Thomaz. 2007.
to estimate aquatic macrophyte species richness in extrapolated
sample sizes. Aquatic
Melo, A. S.,
L. M. Bini e P. Carvalho. 2006.
Brazilian articles in international journal on Limnology.
Melo, A. S.
2005. Effects of taxonomic and numeric resolution on the ability to
detect ecological patterns at local scale using stream
Melo, A. S.
e C. G. Froehlich. 2004. Substrate stability in streams:effects of
stream size, particle size, and rainfall on frequency of movement and
burial of particles. Acta
Limnologica Brasiliensia 16:
Melo, A. S.
critic of the use of jackknife and related non-parametric techniques
to estimate species richness in assemblages. Community
Melo, A. S.
e C. G. Froehlich. 2004.
Colonization by macroinvertebrates of experimentally disturbed stones
in three tropical streams differing in size. International
Review of Hydrobiology
Melo, A. S.,
D. K. Niyogi, C. D. Matthaei e C. R. Townsend. 2003. Resistance,
resilience and patchiness of invertebrate assemblages in native
tussock and pasture streams in New Zealand after a hydrological
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
Abstract e fotos do trabalho de campo
7-) Melo, A. S. 2003. Diversidade de macroinvertebrados em riachos. in Métodos de Estudos em Biologia da Conservação e Manejo da Vida Silvestre. Cullen, L. Jr., R. Rudran e C. V. Padua (eds). Editora da UFPR. Curitiba.
Melo, A. S.,
R. A. S. Pereira, A. J. Santos, G. J. Shepherd, G. Machado, H. F.
Medeiros e R. J. Sawaya. 2003.
Comparing species richness among assemblages using sample units: why
not use extrapolation methods to compare species richness? Oikos
Abstract, função para calcular estimadores nb e ls e arquivo .pdf
Melo, A. S.
e C. G. Froehlich. 2001.
Macroinvertebrates in neotropical streams: richness patterns along a
catchment and assemblage structure between 2 seasons. Journal
of the North American Benthological Society
Melo, A. S.
e C. G. Froehlich. 2001. Evaluation of methods for estimating
macroinvertebrate species richness using individual stones in
tropical streams. Freshwater
Melo, A. S.
e C. F. S. Andrade. 2001. Differential predation of the planarian
on two mosquito
species under laboratory conditions. Journal
of American Mosquito Control Association
A. C. C. Macedo e C. F. S. Andrade. 1996. Eficiência de Dugesia
(Girard) (Turbellaria:Tricladida) como agente controlador de
imaturos do mosquito Aedes
(Skuse) em pneus-armadilha. Anais
da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil
Melo, A. S.,
S. M. Recco-Pimentel & A. A. Giaretta. 1995. The karyotype of the
stream dwelling Megaelosia
(Anura, Leptodactylidae, Hylodinae). Cytologia
Melo, A. S., L. M. Bini e P. Carvalho. 2005. Brazilian articles in international journal on Limnology. Scientometrics 67: 187-199.
Abstract --We assessed the contribution of Brazilian limnologists (freshwater ecologists) in international journals in the period 1970-2004. Brazilian contribution was low and regular in the 1970’s, but increased steeply after 1980 with no signs of stabilization until the present. Articles authored by Brazilians tend to be less cited than articles authored by non-Brazilians, although this difference is reduced in co-authored articles with international researchers. Brazilian articles are not distributed homogenously among the sub-areas of Limnology, but present some biases that can be explained by intellectual legacy. Brazil has invested since the 1970’s in establishing postgraduate courses in Brazil and in the last years has turned the focus to a better qualification of these courses. We believe these are the main reasons for the conspicuous development of Brazilian Limnology.
Melo, A. S. 2005. Effects of taxonomic and numeric resolution on the ability to detect ecological patterns at local scale using stream macroinvertebrates. Archiv fur Hydrobiologie 164: 309-323.
Abstract --The increasing demand for methods of rapid stream bioassessment has stimulated the evaluation of data simplification. In particular, these studies have assessed how much power is lost when species/morphospecies identification is replaced by family identifications or use of EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera) taxa only. A second simplifying factor commonly evaluated is the use of presence/absence data instead of density. These simplifications have provided valid results in most cases where differences among groups are large, particularly in studies comparing impacted vs. non-impacted stream sites and ecological studies involving large spatial scales. Here I evaluate whether data simplification, both in terms of taxonomic (families, morphospecies of EPT) and numeric (presence/absence) resolutions, is valid for ecological studies done at local scales, where differences among groups are subtle. Datasets used are derived from a five-year study of five stream sites situated in a catchment in southeast Brazil. Streams were sampled twice a year, in the rainy (summer) and dry (winter) seasons. I used Analysis of Similarity (ANOSIM) to evaluate if differences i) among stream sites and ii) between seasons within a stream site, revealed by using the full data set (morphospecies, quantitative data), were also detected when using the simplified datasets. The effect of taxonomic resolution was not significant; the two simplified levels of this factor (morphospecies of EPT, families) were able to recover the same groups revealed by the full dataset. However, the use of presence/absence data had a strong negative effect on the ability to distinguish groups, particularly when differences were small (between seasons within a stream site). The success in recovering groups using simplified taxonomic data agrees with previous evaluations done using datasets from applied fields and those from ecological studies involving large spatial scales. However, in contrast to results observed in applied and large-scale studies, use of simplified data quantification in local datasets resulted in significant loss of information. I suggest that the use of family identifications or morphospecies of EPT are reliable alternatives to the use of species/morphospecies in ecological studies at a local scale.
Melo, A. S., R. A. S. Pereira, A. J. Santos, G. J. Shepherd, G. Machado, H. F. Medeiros e R. J. Sawaya. 2003. Comparing species richness among assemblages using sample units: why not use extrapolation methods to compare species richness? Oikos 101: 398-410.
Abstract--Comparisons of species richness among assemblages using different sample sizes may produce erroneous conclusions due to the strong positive relationship between richness and sample size. A current way of handling the problem is to standardize sample sizes to the size of the smallest sample in the study. A major criticism about this approach is the loss of information contained in the larger samples. A potential way of solving the problem is to apply extrapolation techniques to smaller samples, and produce an estimated species richness expected to occur if sample size were increased to the same size of the largest sample. We evaluated the reliability of 11 potential extrapolation methods over a range of different data sets and magnitudes of extrapolation. The basic approach adopted in the evaluation process was a comparison between the observed richness in a sample and the estimated richness produced by estimators using a subsample of the same sample. The Log-Series estimator was the most robust for the range of data sets and subsample sizes used, followed closely by Negative Binomial, SO-J1, Logarithmic, Stout and Vandermeer, and Weibull estimators. When applied to a set of independently replicated samples from a species-rich assemblage, 95% confidence intervals of estimates produced by the six best evaluated methods were comparable to those of observed richness in the samples. Performance of estimators tended to be better for species-rich data sets rather than for those which contained few species. Good estimates were found when extrapolating up to 1.8-2.0 times the size of the sample. We suggest that the use of the best evaluated methods within the range of indicated conditions provides a safe solution to the problem of losing information when standardizing different sample sizes to the size of the smallest sample.
artigo .pdf (contém errata na última página) (~650Kb)
compactado executável (bn_ls_V_1_1.exe) (~70Kb) contendo:
1) Arquivo .txt da função nb.ls (v. 1.1) para calcular os estimadores Negative Binomial e Log-Serie descritos no artigo acima;
2) Arquivo .rtf de ajuda (em Inglês) para implantação e uso da função nb.ls no pacote estatístico R;
3) Arquivo de dados sobre invertebrados aquáticos. Exemplo de formatação dos dados de entrada.
Melo, A. S. e C. G. Froehlich. 2001a. Macroinvertebrates in neotropical streams: richness patterns along a catchment and assemblage structure between 2 seasons. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 20:1-16.
Abstract—We investigated macroinvertebrate richness in 10 streams of different sizes within the Carmo River catchment in Brazil. Specifically, we tested 2 predictions of the river continuum concept (RCC): 1) within the catchment, mid-sized streams (orders 3–4) have the richest biota, and 2) macroinvertebrate assemblage structure is more stable during the dry season than during the rainy season when natural spates are frequent. We sampled the streams using individual stones as sampling units. Observed and estimated values of richness did not follow the hump-shaped pattern of richness along a gradient of stream size as predicted by the RCC; the richest streams were smaller than those predicted. No difference in assemblage structure between seasons was found on the basis of observed and estimated richness or abundance. The similarity in assemblage structure between the rainy and dry seasons was also supported by multivariate analysis. Observed richness and species composition (reflected in multivariate analysis) were strongly correlated to stream size and the presence of fine sediments over rocks. Assemblage structure in these streams seems to be deterministic, in that richness and species composition are related to physical habitat characteristics.
Melo, A. S. e C. G. Froehlich. 2001b. Evaluation of methods for estimating macroinvertebrate species richness using individual stones in tropical streams. Freshwater Biology 46:711-721.
1. The most straightforward way to assess diversity in a site is the species count. However, a relatively large sample is needed for a reliable result because of the presence of many rare species in rich assemblages. The use of richness estimation methods is suggested by many authors as a solution for this problem in many cases.
2. We examined the performance of 13 methods for estimating richness of stream macroinvertebrates inhabiting riffles both at local (stream) and regional (catchment) scales. The evaluation was based on (1) the smallest sub-sample size needed to estimate total richness in the sample, (2) constancy of this size, (3) lack of erratic behaviour in curve shape and (4) similarity in curve shape through different data sets. Samples were from three single stream sites (local) and three from several streams within the same catchment basin (regional). All collections were made from protected forest areas in south-east Brazil.
3. All estimation methods were dependent on sub-sample size, producing higher estimates when using larger sub-sample sizes. The Stout and Vandermeer method estimated total richness in the samples with the smallest sub-sample size, but showed some erratic behaviour at small sub-sample sizes, and the estimated curves were not similar among the six samples. The Bootstrap method was the best estimator in relation to constancy of sub-sample sizes, but needed an unacceptably large sub-sample to estimate total richness in the samples. The second order Jackknife method was the second best estimator both for minimum sub-sample size and constancy of this size and we suggest its use in future studies of diversity in tropical streams. Despite the inferior performance of several other methods, some produced acceptable results. Comments are made on the utility of using these estimators for predicting species richness in an area and for comparative purposes in diversity studies.
Melo, A. S. e C. F. S. Andrade. 2001c. Differential predation of the planarian Dugesia tigrina on two mosquito species under laboratory conditions. Journal of American Mosquito Control Association 17: 81-83.
Abstract. Two experiments were performed on the predation of the planarian Dugesia tigrina (Girard) upon 2 mosquito prey species, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus. Bioassays were carried out in sectioned tires with 2 liters of water. In the Ist experiment, predation was evaluated using 4, 8, and 12 mature planarians against 40 2nd-stage larvae of each mosquito species alone. In the 2nd experiment, the same 3 predator densities were used with a pool composed of 20 2nd-stage larvae of each mosquito species. In the Ist experiment, final corrected mortality of Ae. albopictus reached 89.1, 98.8, and 99.6% and final corrected mortality of Cx. quinquefasciatus reached 29.4, 48.0, and 53.0%, respectively, with 4, 8, and 12 planarians. In the 2nd experiment and when subjected to the: density of 4 planarians, Ae. albopictus was more susceptible to predation, with a selectivity index of 0.87, whereas this index was 0.13 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. Predation was more intensive during the Ist 4 days of the experiments, when most larvae were in the 2nd and 3rd stages. We observed that Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were faster than Ae. albopictus in reacting to planarian contacts, resulting in more success in escaping from the predator attacks.
Melo, A.S., A. C. C. Macedo e C. F. S. Andrade. 1996. Eficiência de Dugesia tigrina (Girard) (Turbellaria:Tricladida) como agente controlador de imaturos do mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) em pneus-armadilha. Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 25: 321-327.
Natural colonization of mosquitoes was weekly evaluated in trap-tires inoculated with the planaria Dugesia tigrina (Girard) as predator. Ten pairs of tires (with or without planaria) were set up in an area of 245 ha at the Universidade Estadual de Campinas-UNICAMP. Four individuals/tire were introduced. Pupal and larval populations were evaluated weekly for a period up to 15 weeks, as well as the populational growth of planaria in the traps. Aedes albopictus (Skuse) larvae and pupae represented 99.5% of the total trapped, the 2nd and 3rd instars being less frequent in tires with predators when compared to tires without predators. Efficiency in controlling mosquitoes was in average >90%. Planaria showed sexual reproduction reaching as many as 73 individuals/trap.
Melo, A. S., S. M. Recco-Pimentel & A. A. Giaretta. 1995. The karyotype of the stream dwelling Megaelosia massarti (Anura, Leptodactylidae, Hylodinae). Cytologia 60: 49-52.
Leptodactylids are a large and diversified family of Neotropical anurans with about sixty genera and 710 species. The subfamily Hylodinae is mainly related to rushing, clean, cold water virulents of the Atlantic Forest in Southeast Brazil; Megaelosia and Hylodes are endemic genera of this vegetal formation. The subfamily is composed of three genera, nominally: Hylodes (14 spp.), Crossodactylus (5 spp.) and Megaelosia (4 spp.). The hylodine frogs form a monophyletic group in which Hylodes and Crossodatylus are more related to one another than with Megaelosia. Megaelosia species are very different by their large size and aquatic frog-eating habits. They are also particularly rare in collections, probably due to their restricted distribution and cryptic behavior. Karyological information is currently available for five species of the genus Hylodes and three of the genus Crossodactylus. The most widespread diploid number among the subfamily, as well as the family, is 2n = 26. Here, we describe the karyotype of Megaelosia massarti, a first karyological report on the genus.
Melo, A. S. e C. G. Froehlich. 2004. Substrate stability in streams:effects of stream size, particle size, and rainfall on frequency of movement and burial of particles. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia 16: 381-390.
Abstract--Surface movement and burial of streambed particles are indicated in the literature as mechanisms by which floods disturb stream invertebrate assemblages. We designed an experiment to test whether stream size, rainfall, and particle size were important in the frequency of particle movement and burial. Five stream sites, from orders 1-4 and differing from each other in relation to substrate composition and presence of debris dams were studied. Labeled particles were placed in the streambed and checked every two months during one year. There was a statistically significant interaction among rainfall and particle size, indicating that the positive effect of rainfall was dependent on particle size. Also, there was a statistically significant positive effect of stream size, although of low magnitude when compared to the effects of rainfall. Frequency of burial was much lower than that of particle movements, except in the smallest stream site during the peak of the rainy season when 57% of the particles were buried to some degree. During periods of high rainfall several of the debris dams present in the smallest stream were broken, causing movements of particles located upstream and burial of particles in downstream areas. In a second survey one year after the end of the experiment, 67-100% of the particles were dislodged.
Melo, A. S. e C. G. Froehlich. 2004. Colonization by macroinvertebrates of experimentally disturbed stones in three tropical streams differing in size. International Review of Hydrobiology 89:317-325.
Abstract--We experimentally disturbed stones in three contrasting streams and followed the colonization process during 64 days. The three streams were 0.5-1, 10 and 20 m wide. The smallest stream had a small discharge and the studied area was close to its source. The biggest stream held a diversified assemblage of fishes, including benthonic and nektonic insectivorous species. The medium-sized stream site was far from the source and the fish assemblage was composed mainly of detritivorous armored catfish. We hypothesized that colonization of new patches both in the smallest and the biggest streams would be slower than in the medium-sized stream. In the smallest, the small area upstream could restrict the number of potential colonizers, especially those dispersed by drift. Presence of predaceous fishes in the biggest site would inhibit drift behaviour. In other hand, the medium-sized stream would not be constrained by the two factors. We assessed data on abundance, species richness and similarity of samples collected 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 days after the start of the experiment. Colonization patterns for the streams were quite similar to each other, causing the rejection of the stated hypothesis. Colonization was fast, and for the smallest and the medium-sized streams, undisturbed control levels of abundance and species richness were attained in 8-16 days. Recovery of species richness in the biggest stream was similar to the two other streams. However, abundance in the biggest stream increased continually until the end of the experiment, attaining values similar to control samples in day 4 and values significantly higher than those observed in the control sample after day 32. Similarity among colonization days and controls increased until day 16, when curves tended to flatten off at values lower than those observed between control samples. Recovery in the studied streams was fast, and agrees with results from other studies. Lack of support to the original hypothesis is discussed in terms of the validity of the stated assumptions and more generally in relation to the relative importance of drift in colonization of small patches.
Melo, A. S. 2004. A critic of the of jackknife and related non-parametric techniques to estimate species richness in assemblages. Community Ecology 5: 149-157. Artigo em formato pdf
Abstract--Species richness in an assemblage is frequently used as a measure of biological diversity. However, observed species richness is strongly dependent on sample size. If more samples are collected, then more species are observed. Non-parametric species richness estimators, such as the Jackknife 1 and 2 and the Chao 1 and 2, are indicated in the literature as potential solutions to the problem of dependence of observed species richness on sampling effort. These methods are intended to estimate the total species richness in an area or assemblage with small sampling effort. Non-parametric estimators are based on the number of species observed, and the number of rare species in a sample, i.e., that occurred in one and/or two sampling units, or with one and/or two individuals. High estimates are produced when samples contain large proportions of rare species. Using a range of real data sets, I show that estimates produced by non-parametric methods are generally dependent on observed species richness. An implicit assumption of these non-parametric techniques is that the rare species curve should present high values at small sample sizes and decreasing values as sampling effort is increased. This assumption was observed in only one out of eight datasets presented. Instead, the rare species curve generally flattens off around a constant value as sampling effort increases. I conclude that non-parametric estimators are not reliable to estimate species richness in an assemblage when the rare species curve do not show a decreasing trend. Comments are made on the possibilities of using non-parametric estimators in the comparisons of species assemblages.
Melo, A. S. e C. G. Froehlich. Em preparação. Community structure and persistence of stream macroinvertebrates in tropical streams.
Abstract--We used data of stream macroinvertebrates in five streams sampled twice a year during five years to assess four topics related to persistence of communities: (1) Are there distinct and recurrent summer and winter communities? (2) Does communities in seasons of low environmental variability (dry, winter season) are more constant and similar to each other over years than are communities in seasons of high environmental variability (rainy, summer season)? (3) Does community variability is related to environmental variability? (4) Does community variability increases with time? Communities in each stream site were distinct from each other as revealed by UPGMA analysis. For the five streams, all 10 samples collected in each stream over five years were classified in a single group. Winter samples tended to cluster together at high similarity levels and nested within summer samples. We used Kendall's coefficient of concordance (W) to assess persistence of summer and winter communities over the five years period studied. For the five streams, persistence was higher in winter than in summer communities. Persistence was not related to environmental stability of the five streams studied. There was not an overall significance of the correlations between persistence of communities (measured by the coefficients of concordance W), and three measures of site stability (frequency of dislocated and buried stones and the scores of the Pfankuch index of channel stability). Variability of winter communities did not increased with time. Concordance between winter samples collected in adjacent years was not different from concordance between samples collected far apart. However, concordance between summer communities decreased as samples were farther apart. Results support the view that stream communities vary along the year from a non-equilibrium state during the wet season when disturbance by high flow is frequent, to an equilibrium state during the dry season when flow is stable.
Melo, A. S., L. M. Bini e S. M. Thomaz. 2007. Assessment of methods to estimate aquatic macrophyte species richness in extrapolated sample sizes. Aquatic Botany 86:377-384.
Abstract -- We evaluated six methods to estimate species richness in extrapolated sample size using presence–absence data for aquatic macrophyte assemblages. Methods suitable for assemblages involving terrestrial and non-clonal (unitary) organisms may not be valid for aquatic macrophytes. The extrapolation of a species accumulation curve using a logarithmic function or using a linear model on the log of accumulated sampling units consistently overestimated species richness. The newly proposed Total-Species method gave similar results. The Negative Binomial and Logarithmic Series methods and the recently proposed Binomial Mixture Model were unbiased and accurate. We conclude that current extrapolation techniques are valid for estimation of species richness in macrophyte assemblages, and recommend the Logarithmic Series, Binomial Negative or Binomial Mixture Model methods.
Costa S. S. e A. S. Melo. 2008.Beta diversity in stream macroinvertebrate assemblages: among-site and among-microhabitat components. Hydrobiologia 598:131-138.
Abstract --The benthic macroinvertebrate community is an important component of stream diversity, because its members are fundamental connectors among the different trophic levels of running waters. In this study, we assessed alpha and beta diversities of benthic macroinvertebrates in three stream sites and four microhabitats: (i) moss in the air-water interface; (ii) submerged roots of terrestrial plants; (iii) leaf litter deposited in pools; (iv) stones in riffles. We constructed rarefaction curves and compared species richness among microhabitats for each stream site. Additionally, we evaluated which factor, stream site, or microhabitat, was most important in determining variation in assemblage structure, i.e., beta diversity. There was no significant difference among microhabitats in terms of taxa richness evaluated by rarefaction curves. Using partial Constrained Correspondence Analysis (pCCA), we found that microhabitat was most important in determining community composition, accounting for 42.02% of the total variation. Stream sites accounted for 22.27%. In accordance with the pCCA, exploratory multivariate methods (ordination and classification) revealed four distinct groups, corresponding to the four microhabitats, independent of stream sites. Our results indicated that differences among environmental conditions are much more important in the determination of stream assemblage structure than are differences in spatial location. Accordingly, adjacent microhabitats in a single stream site harbor macroinvertebrate assemblages more dissimilar than those found in a single microhabitat at different stream sites.
Bücker, F., R. Gonçalves, G. Bond-Buckup e A. S. Melo. 2008. Effect of environmental variables on the distribution of two freshwater crabs (Anomura: Aeglidae). Journal of Crustacean Biology 28:248-251.
Abstract--We evaluate whether the abundance of the freshwater crabs Aegla itacolomiensis and A. platensis is related to any or all of 11 environmental variables. We sampled 205 Surber samples (33333 cm) in a stream five meters wide in southern Brazil. For each Surber sample we obtained measures of flow velocity, depth, type of substrate, and availability of coarse particulate organic matter. The relationships between abundances of the two species and the environmental variables were assessed by regression trees. Only 2 of the 11 environmental variables were important in describing the abundances of the two species, both of them related to availability of coarse particulate organic matter. The abundance of Aegla itacolomiensis was related positively to quantity of fragmented leaves and, to a lesser degree, to quantity of twigs. For the abundance of A. platensis, quantity of twigs, followed by fragmented leaves, were the most important environmental factors. The quantity of recently fallen, unfragmented leaves was unimportant. We conclude that the two species of Aegla select locations with abundant old plant fragments that are usually colonized by fungi and bacteria. This conclusion is corroborated by previous studies indicating that Aegla spp. feed mostly on plant fragments.
Landeiro, V. L., N. Hamada e A. S. Melo. 2008. Responses of aquatic invertebrate assemblages and leaf breakdown to macroconsumer exclusion in Amazonian “terra firme” streams. Fundamental and Applied Limnology 172: 49-58.
Abstract: Many authors have reported a lack of insect shredders in tropical streams and some have suggested that macroconsumers, such as fi sh and shrimp, are potential substitutes for insect shredders. We experimentally excluded macroconsumers (fi sh and shrimp) from leaf packs to examine their role in determining the rate of leaf breakdown and their effects on the associated invertebrate community. The experiment was designed in blocks and replicated in two reaches of four streams. Temperature of all stream reaches studied was 24 °C (without variation), and water conductivity was low, varying from 8.8 to 10.8 μs/cm. Fish were never observed near the leaf packs and therefore the effects of the macroconsumer treatment were attributed to shrimps. We found a signifi cant effect on leaf breakdown, with greater leaf breakdown (i.e., less mass remaining after 17 days) in the control (65 % leaf mass remaining) compared to the macroconsumer exclusion (70 % leaf mass remaining). However, the mechanism for this effect was not clear. Considerable variation in leaf decomposition occurred among blocked stream sites, suggesting that some factors differing among these sites, perhaps macroinvertebrate shredder abundance, was contributing to decomposition. Leaves were visually inspected at the conclusion of the experiment and there was no sign of shrimp directly feeding on the leaves. There was no difference in insect shredder abundance between treatments. There was, however, a signifi cantly greater amount of non-mining chironomids in the absence of macroconsumers. This is probably due to the release from predation by shrimp.
Vasconcelos, M.C. e A. S. Melo. 2008. An experimental test of the effects of inorganic sediment addition on benthic macroinvertebrates of a subtropical stream. Hydrobiologia 610: 321-329.
Abstract --Inorganic sediments of terrestrial origin may impact stream macroinvertebrate communities. Although input of terrestrial sediments to streams may occur naturally, human-induced activities in the catchment amplify this input greatly. We used an instream experiment to investigate whether short-term additions of terrestrial sediments of two size classes affected stream macroinvertebrates. The experiment was designed in blocks to minimize the influence of flow velocity and other environmental variables. Four treatments were employed: (i) addition of fine sand (0–0.24 mm), (ii) coarse sand (0.25–0.8 mm), (iii) fine+coarse sand, and (iv) control (water only). Macroinvertebrates were sampled immediately after the addition of sediments (or water). The experiment consisted of 20 blocks. We analyzed the response of the macroinvertebrate fauna in terms of abundance and species richness. Since species richness is strongly dependent on number of individuals sampled, we also analyzed rarefied species richness. Community structure was evaluated using a distancebased Manova on presence/absence and abundance data. The addition of coarse and fine+coarse sand reduced the abundance and species richness of macroinvertebrates in relation to the control. The response in terms of rarefied species richness in the treatments did not differ from the control, indicating that reduction in species richness was a sampling artifact resulting from decreased sample abundance. The Manova analyses indicated that coarse-sand addition caused changes in both species composition and community structure. Addition of fine and fine+coarse sand affected only slightly species composition and community structure. We concluded that even short-term input of terrestrial sediments causes impacts on benthic macroinvertebrates, and recommend that land-use management of tropical catchments should employ practices that reduce input of terrestrial sediments to streams.
Melo, A. S., T.F.L.V.B. Rangel e J.A.F. Diniz-Filho. 2008. Environmental drivers of beta-diversity patterns in New-World birds and mammals. Ecography 31: ppp-ppp.
Abstract -- Current macroecological research places great emphasis on patterns of species richness (alpha diversity) and the underlying ecological and evolutionary processes involved in their origin and maintenance. However, few studies dealing with continental scales have addressed dissimilarities in species composition among areas (beta diversity). Using data for the occurrence of 3836 bird and 1641 mammal species in 4220 cells covering the New World, we assessed whether broad-scale macroecological patterns in beta diversity are related to dissimilarities in environmental variables and biotic units. We employed spatial regression and tree regression to model beta diversity. Difference in altitude was the best predictor of beta diversity. Accordingly, the highest beta diversity values were found in mountainous areas, particularly in the Andes, Central America and western North America. Explanatory variables related to transitions between biotic units (biome, ecoregion) were relatively unimportant. Areas that differ in altitude from their surroundings harbor different sets of species, and this may reflect either species adaptation to particular environmental conditions by range shifts, or species divergence by vicariance, or both.
Melo, A. S. 2008. O que ganhamos ‘confundindo’ riqueza de espécies e equabilidade em um índice de diversidade? Biota Neotropica 8(3): 21-27.
Abstract --No contexto de Ecologia de Comunidades e em várias aplicações da Biologia da Conservação, diversidade indica variedade de espécies, podendo ou não incluir informações sobre a importância relativa de cada espécie. Diversidade é um dos atributos mais fundamentais no estudo de comunidades e para tal uma ampla gama de métodos para sua mensuração estão disponíveis. Entre eles destacam-se, pelo amplo uso, índices de diversidade não-paramétricos (ou de heterogeneidade) tais como os Índices de Shannon e Simpson. Estes índices consistem de (ou confundem) dois componentes, riqueza de espécies e equabilidade. Diferentes índices de diversidade podem ser obtidos combinando-se com diferentes pesos estes dois componentes. Dada a ausência de um critério objetivo na escolha destes pesos, o uso de um índice em detrimento de outro é muitas vezes arbitrário. Adicionalmente, visto o peso dado por cada índice de diversidade para cada um dos dois componentes, um dado índice pode indicar que a amostra A é mais diversa que a B, enquanto um outro índice pode indicar o contrário. Ainda, índices de diversidade aplicados sobre amostras diferindo em riqueza de espécies e equabilidade podem produzir o mesmo valor. Tais problemas podem ser contornados utilizando-se métodos alternativos. Um destes consiste no cálculo de perfis de diversidade, em que se calcula não apenas um mas vários índices de diversidade diferindo no peso dado a cada um dos componentes. Outras alternativas incluem o uso de riqueza de espécies apenas, diagrama de Whittaker (ou de dominância) e diagramas de dispersão com eixos definidos por riqueza de espécies e um índice de equabilidade. Com exceção de riqueza de espécies, as demais alternativas citadas mostram de forma gráfica muito mais informações do que aquela embutida num único valor obtido pela aplicação de um índice de diversidade. No caso de estudos em que se necessita de um valor resposta, a ser modelado segundo um ou mais preditores (Modelos Lineares tais como Regressão e Análise de Variância), uma sugestão é o uso separado de riqueza de espécies e de equabilidade.
Melo, A. S. e L. U. Hepp. 2008. Ferramentas estatísticas para análises de dados provenientes de biomonitoramento. Oecologia Brasiliensis 12(3) 463-486.
Abstract -- Além de índices multimétricos e modelos preditivos, diversos métodos estatísticos podem ser empregados em programas de biomonitoramento ou bioavaliação. Nesta revisão enfatizamos a necessidade de planejamento do estudo e abordamos diversos tópicos que podem ser úteis neste planejamento. Tais tópicos incluem a definição de objetivos e replicação adequada, simplificação do conjunto de dados (uso de gênero/família, dados presença/ausência, remoção de espécies raras), padronização do esforço amostral, transformação/padronização dos dados e breve descrição de análises estatísticas univariadas e multivariadas. A descrição das análises é feita com auxílio da identificação do número, tipo (resposta, explanatória) e natureza (categórica, quantitativa) das variáveis. Nas análises univariadas, são fornecidos exemplos que ilustram o uso de blocos e covariáveis bem como ressaltam a importância de interações entre variáveis explanatórias. Nas análises multivariadas são abordados os objetivos e lógicas de análise de ordenações, classificações e MANOVA baseadas em distância.
Melo, A.S. e T. A. Wheeler. A new species of Pseudogaurax Malloch (Diptera: Chloropidae) reared from dobsonfly egg-masses (Megaloptera: Corydalidae) in Brazil. Zootaxa no prelo.
Abstract -- Pseudogaurax idiogenes Wheeler sp. n. (type locality: Iporanga, São Paulo, Brazil) is described from specimens reared from the egg masses of dobsonflies (Corydalidae) in southern Brazil. This is only the second record of Pseudogaurax larvae feeding on Megaloptera eggs (first from the Neotropical region). Larvae of most species of Pseudogaurax are predators of spider eggs.